Romantic Ballet in 3 acts
Music by Cesare Pugni
22nd June 1843
Her Majesty’s Theatre, London
Choreography by Jules Perrot
Original 1843 Cast
St Petersburg Première
11th February [O.S. 30th Janaury] 1851
Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre
Original 1851 Cast
Première of Petipa’s first revival
Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre
Original 1867 Cast
Première of Petipa’s second revival
7th November [O.S. 27th October] 1874
Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre
Original 1874 Cast
Première of Petipa’s final revival
2nd October [O.S. 20th Septmber] 1892
Imperial Mariinsky Theatre
Original 1892 Cast
Loosely inspired by the 1811 novella Undine by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, The Naiad and the Fisherman tells the story of Ondine, a beautiful, but jealous naiad in love with the mortal fisherman, Matteo, who is engaged to the beautiful peasant girl, Giannina.
The Naiad and the Fisherman was created by Jules Perrot and Cesare Pugni as a two-act Romantic ballet and was originally staged under the title Ondine. The ballet was premièred at Her Majesty’s Theatre in London on the 22nd June 1843, starring the Italian Prima Ballerina Fanny Cerrito in the title role. The ballet was a huge success, with Mme. Cerrito dazzling the audience. Perrot’s tenure as Ballet Master in London came to an end in 1848 after nearly a decade of staging many acclaimed and successful works and by 1849, he was serving as Premier Maître de Ballet to the St Petersburg Imperial Theatres. Pugni followed Perrot to Russia, where the composer was given the post of official Ballet Composer. Like most European theatres of that time, Her Majesty’s Theatre in London only produced ballets as one or two-act diversions between scenes of operas, but the opera houses of Russia devoted entire evenings exclusively to ballet. In light of this, Perrot staged many of his works that had been mounted previously in London in elaborately expanded editions for the St Petersburg stage, requiring not only that Perrot add and embellish his original dances and mise-en-scène, but also that Pugni expand his scores.
Like nearly all ballets and operas of that time, irregardless of critical acclamation and/or financial success, Ondine faded quickly from the repertoires of most European opera houses, but it found a permanent home in Russia. Perrot’s St Petersburg staging differed vastly from his original London staging, with only about a sixth of the 1843 version being retained. Pugni extensively revised his score, composing many new musical numbers and the libretto underwent change. The ballet was expanded from two acts to three acts and was even given a new title – it was now called The Naiad and the Fisherman. One prime example of a change made to the libretto was the ending, most likely by the influence of Carlotta Grisi, who danced the title role in the 1851 production. In the original 1843 London production, the ballet ended with Ondine sacrificing herself in favour of Matteo and Giannina’s happiness, primarily because she was unable to physically adapt to life as a mortal and accepted the chance to be rescued from death. Matteo and Giannina were happily reunited and Ondine resumed her naiad form and returned to the sea forever, never to see her beloved again. The 1851 staging, however, ended on a different note in favour of Ondine – when Ondine returned to the sea as a naiad, Matteo followed her into the water and drowned. The ballet ended with Ondine and the drowned Matteo kneeling before Hydrola, the Queen of the Naiads, who blessed their union, while Giannina was seen trying in vain to reach Matteo, but was blocked by a wall of water that rose out of a fountain.
Perrot’s 1851 staging of the newly renamed ballet, The Naiad and the Fisherman was met with great success in St Petersburg. On the 23rd July [O.S. 11th July] 1851, the ballet was given a special performance at Peterhof Palace for the name day of the Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna, daughter of Tsar Nicholas I. For this performance, a stage was erected above the waters of the lake of the Ozerky Pavilion.
Following Perrot’s departure from Russia, Petipa later went onto stage three revivals of The Naiad and the Fisherman. His first revival was staged in 1867 for Ekaterina Vazem, in which Pugni composed two new variations for her. Petipa revived the ballet again for Eugenia Sokolova in 1874 and it was in this revival that he revised the entire ballet, with Ludwig Minkus composing new music numbers. Petipa’s final revival of The Naiad and the Fisherman was staged for the ballerina Anna Johansson, with more musical revisions, this time, by Riccardo Drigo. The revival premièred on the 2nd October [O.S. 20th September] 1892.
The Naiad and the Fisherman was revived for a final time in 1903 by Pugni’s grandson, Alexander Shiryaev, who was second ballet master of the Imperial Theatres at the time. Shiryaev revived his grandfather’s ballet for Anna Pavlova and this was to be the final revival of The Naiad and the Fisherman that would be staged for and danced by the Imperial Ballet. Shiryaev revived the ballet again in 1921 for the Leningrad Choreographic Institute (now, the Vaganova Academy) and the ballet was performed for the final time in St Petersburg in 1931, after which, it fell into obscurity.
In 1958, Sir Frederick Ashton created a brand new version of Ondine to music by Hans Werner Henze and a libretto that was a much more faithful adaptation of Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué’s novella for Dame Margot Fonteyn. Ashton’s Ondine premièred on the 27th October 1958 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Other original cast members included Michael Somes as Prince Palemon, Julia Farron as Berta and Alexander Grant as Tirrenio.
In 1984, Shiryaev’s student, Pyotr Gusev staged a suite of extracts from The Naiad and the Fisherman that he claimed to be Perrot’s original choreography for a gala performance held at the Kremlin in Moscow in honour of his 80th birthday. Gusev claimed that he remembered the choreography for the ballet and was able to distinguish the passages that derived from Perrot’s original version. However, there is no concrete evidence proving that any of Perrot’s choreography survived beyond the 19th century, so the authorship and authenticity of the choreographic extracts staged by Gusev is extremely questionable. It is possible that he may have mistakenly credited some of Petipa’s or Shiryaev’s choreography to Perrot, possibly due to his elderly age. As there is only Gusev’s word to go on and nothing else, the whole story behind these extracts will probably never be explained.
In 2006, Pierre Lacotte choreographed and staged a new version of Perrot and Pugni’s ballet under the original title of Ondine for the Mariinsky Ballet. The production was based on the original two-act 1843 London production, though it included some musical numbers from the St Petersburg productions, including a pas de deux that Riccardo Drigo composed for Anna Pavlova in Shiryaev’s 1903 revival. Lacotte’s Ondine premièred at the Mariinsky Theatre on the 16th March 2006, but the production has not been staged and performed for some time.
Did you know?
- A variation that Riccardo Drigo composed for Anna Johansson in Petipa’s 1892 revival is traditionally performed today in the Paquita Grand Pas Classique. It has also appeared in 20th century productions of The Little Humpbacked Horse in the Underwater scene of the final act, in which Ivanushka and the Humpbacked Horse travel to the bottom of the Arctic Ocean to retrieve the Tsar Maiden’s lost ring.
- The Naiad and the Fisherman was one of Anna Pavlova’s favourite ballets and as part of her company’s repertoire, she danced a short pas d’action entitled Ondine, which was inspired by the full-length ballet. However, Pavlova did not use any of Pugni’s music or any of the musical additions by Drigo or Minkus for her Ondine pas d’action. Instead, she used a number from Alfredo Catalani’s 1880 opera, Elda.
- One of the most famous moments from The Naiad and the Fisherman was Ondine’s entrance in Act 1. In the original 1843 London production and the subsequent St Petersburg revivals, Ondine made her entrance by rising out of the sea in a giant shell à la Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus. This famous painting was referenced to in other 19th century ballets, such as The Sleeping Beauty.
- Although The Naiad and the Fisherman fell into obscurity after the 1917 revolution, two variations from the second act of the Imperial Ballet production were notated and are part of the Sergeyev Collection. These two variations are those of Tamara Karsavina and her classmate Elena Poliakova.
Variation for Anna Johansson as Ondine, composed by Drigo (1892)
Pas de l’Ombre
The Pas de l’Ombre (aka the Shadow Dance) is the most famous passage from The Naiad and the Fisherman, in which Ondine plays with her shadow. In the original 1843 production, Ondine first discovered her shadow after becoming mortal and stepping onto the shore in the moonlight. At first, she believed her shadow to be a rival for Matteo’s affections, but when discovering what it really was, she became delighted and danced with it on the moonlit shore. In the first act of Ashton’s Ondine, the choreographer pays homage to Perrot with his own version of the Shadow Dance. Ashton even owned an oil painting of Fanny Cerrito in an arabesque pose from Perrot’s original Pas de l’Ombre.
- Guest, Ivor (1985) Jules Perrot: Master of the Romantic Ballet. London, UK: Dance Books Ltd
- Werner, Henze, Hans (1959) Ondine: Diary of a Ballet. (Translated edition, 2003), Alton, Hampshire: Dance Books Ltd
- Manchester, P. W. Liner note for the LP record “Homage to Pavlova” (CSA 2232). Decca Records, 1974
- Mariinsky Ballet: Theatre program from Ondine. Mariinsky Theatre, 2006